Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment chemicals with a positive charge are added to the water the positive charge of these chemicals neutralizes the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant flocculation is the agglomeration of destabilized particles into microfloc and after into bulky floccules which can be settled called floc.
Flocculation, is the action of polymers to form bridges between the flocs and bind the particles into large agglomerates or clumps bridging occurs when segments of the polymer chain adsorb on different particles and help particles aggregate. Coagulation and flocculation process fundamentals 1 coagulation and flocculation groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles.
Physico-chemical treatment of sugar industry wastewater: physico-chemical treatment of sugar industry wastewater-emphasis to coagulation,flocculation & chemical precipitation feb 19, 2016 by milanben lakdawala.
Thus, coagulation and flocculation techniques are employed for separating these impurities from water coagulation is achieved by neutralizing the particles and thus, the repelling force between the particles is greatly reduced. Coagulation means to curdle it basically refers to a chemical process in which the destabilization of non- settleable particles takes place these particles form clump this is done with the help of a coagulant on the other hand, flocculation means to form flocs it can be described as a physical or a mechanical process in which the coagulated clumps are made to join. Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence   basically, coagulation is a process of addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle.
Coagulation and flocculation coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment chemicals with a positive charge are added to the water. Coagulation and flocculation occurs in successive steps, allowing particle collision and growth of floc this is then followed by sedimentation (see sedimentation chapter) if coagulation is incomplete, flocculation step will be unsuccessful, and if flocculation is incomplete.
Coagulation and floculation describe the chemical process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersion (colloids) form larger-size cluster (flocs or flakes) allowing them to be more easely removed from water (eg by settling.
Conventional coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation conventional coagulation–flocculation-sedimentation practices are essential pretreatments for many water purification systems—especially filtration treatments these processes agglomerate suspended solids together into larger bodies so that physical filtration processes can more easily remove them.